A ruby is a pink to red colored gemstone and belongs to the family of minerals called corundum. The color of a ruby comes from an element called chromium. In Thailand, ruby is known as 'tabtim', which means 'pomegranate' in Thai because these shining red gems look like the edible seed coats found inside the fruit.
Amber comes in the colour range of yellow-orange-brown-red colors It is considered a gem because it glows and glistens when polished, but Amber is not actually a gemstone. It is the hardened coating called resin that came from the sap of ancient trees. These gems have been fossilized and can have small insects, leaves and even frogs or lizards inside. Amber mainly comes form the Baltic Sea area.
The word Topaz means “fire” in Sanskrit. Topaz comes in many different colours ranging from orange, gold, peach to pink , yellowish-orange and even colourless. Another name for a yellow topaz is called the Imperial Topaz. They make a blue topaz by adding heat to the topaz, which makes it change colour.
Emerald belongs to the Beryl family and gets there beautiful colour from elements called chromium and vanadium. Emeralds measures between 7.5 - 8 on the Mohs Scale, which means they are very hard and don't break easily. Emeralds can be found in places like Columbia in south America and even in the Yukon region in Canada.
Aquamarine also belongs to the same family as the Emerald called Beryl. It comes in shade of blue to green with its sparkling ocean-liek colour. and in Latin means "water of the sea". A blue topaz can often be mistaken for an aquamarine because they look similar. It's sparkling ocean-like color.
This beautiful rainbow gemstone is known for it's maze of colours. The neat thing about opals is they are formed from rain. Many believe it is formed when water from rain seeps down into the small cracks in the rock. Once the water evaporates, the silica that is left behind dries out and hardens into the precious opal. Did you know opal has been found on planet Mars.
Sapphires belong to the family called corundum. They are among the strongest natural gemstones in existence, second only to diamonds. They have even been created in labs and used in Apple Watches because of their hardness. Did you know the rarest colour of a sapphire is pink, which means it's hard to find. What's really neat is when a sapphire is cut a certain way, so it can show a neat star-effect. Sapphires can be found around the world in Australia, Malawi, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, and the United States.
An Amethyst belong to the family called quartz. They are usually transparent come in a beautiful violet colour. Heating the amethyst either takes away its colour or changes it to a yellow hue.Both Amethysts and Citrine Quartz are called "Sister Stones" since the only difference between them is in colour!
This popular gem can be found in Brazil, North Carolina and Ontario.
Rose Quartz also belongs to the same family as Amethysts and Citrine called the Quartz family. Rose quartz is a type of quartz that is light to darker pink in colour. The color usually comes from trace amounts of titanium, iron, or manganese.
Pearls are the only jewels created by a living animal. Did you know that approx. 1 in every 10,000 wild oysters contain pearls. All pearl oysters are born male and transform into females at around three years of age. There are three major types of saltwater cultured pearls called Akoya, Tahitian and South Sea.
Smoky Quartz is the brown variety of Quartz. It ranges in color from light grayish-brown to gray and deep black. Very dark smoky quartz is called Morion and can come from places like mountain ranges. Smoky quartz is also the National Gem of Scotland.
Agate belongs to the family called Quartz. These beautiful gems are mainly found in large rocks called boulders. Once cut, bands of colour can be found in agate, which look similar to the trunk of tree rings when you look inside. Agate was first found thousands of years ago along the shoreline of the river Achates.
Jasper is an opaque type of Chalcedony. It is found in all colors including: black, red, brown, pink, yellow, green, grey/white and shades of blue and purple. It often contains organic material and mineral oxides which give it interesting patterns, bands and colors
Diamonds are found deep inside the earth; from 90 to 120 miles dow. This gem is made of 100% of carbon, which is compressed tightly together then heated to extreme temperatures as hot as lava from a volcano. Sometimes diamonds will find their way to Earth's surface through volcanic eruptions, but mostly people have to dig or mine for them.
Mystic Topaz is a dazzling stone that displays a unique ray of rainbow colours. Its stunning reflection of colors makes this variety of topaz an incredibly popular. It is created by taking a topaz and adding titanium as an outer coating to give it brilliant colours.